PROF S M BHATT
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Workshops & Seminars
I’m Prof. SMBHATT
Professor sheelendra m Bhatt is a former Research Dy. Director at Sant baba bhag Singh University, Ph.D. approved guide at Punjab technical University and now currently working as Professor and Head of department at Agriculture department at Amritsar group of colleges, Amritsar. Founder of Vidysheel foundation for water conservation and free CSIR education to students of life sciences. Did Phd from Biotechnology department for bioplastic production from PLA, and now currently had published more than 40+ research papers with 3 Patents by Gov. of India. Collaborative research going on with North Dacota University, USA, University of Bali, Indonesia for organic food production by Hydroponics methods also linked with Israeli tech. to work with growing various medicinal and non-medicinal crops.
He established various activity-based clubs for mushroom cultivation, organic forming via hydroponics, and now developing technology to convert the cellulosic pulp to plastic.
He received a Doctoral Degree (Ph.D.) in Biochemical Engineering from I.I.T. Banaras Hindu University, (B.H.U) Varanasi, India in 2010. He is a graduate in Biology from VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur, India in 1996, and post-graduation in Biotechnology B.H.U. Varanasi, India in 2001. He served as an Assistant Professor for Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India since 2010. As an Assistant Professor, he is a recipient of many awards and grants for his valuable contributions and discoveries in his major area of research. He is the Editor-in-Chief/Editorial Board Member of many peer-reviewed journals like Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation and Cell Biology International and his area of expertise, as an Assistant Professor credits him with many publications in national and international journals. He is a Life Member of “Biotech research Society” BRSI, India Trivandrum. He is committed to the highest standards of excellence and it proves through his authorship of many books.
recently published 7 book chapters in Springer Nature. with 3 patents, 4text books. worked in collaboration with IIT B.H.U, IIT Delhi, North Dakota University, University of South Korea.
Basic English grammar: tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verb-noun agreement, and other parts of speech
Basic vocabulary: words, idioms, and phrases in context
Reading and comprehension
Data interpretation: data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2- and 3-dimensional plots, maps, and tables
Numerical computation and estimation: ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series
Mensuration and geometry
Elementary statistics and probability
Logic: deduction and induction
Numerical relations and reasoning
Transformation of shapes: translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping Paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions
Section 1: Atomic Structure and Periodicity
Planck’s quantum theory
wave particle duality
comparison between Bohr’s model and quantum mechanical model of hydrogen atom
electronic configuration of atoms and ions
Hund’s rule and Pauli’s exclusion principle
Periodic table and periodic properties: ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity and atomic size.
Section 2: Structure and Bonding
Ionic and covalent bonding
MO and VB approaches for diatomic molecules
VSEPR theory and shape of molecules
structure parameters such as bond length
bond angle and bond energy
hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions
Ionic solids, ionic radii and lattice energy (Born-Haber cycle)
Section 3: s, p and d Block Elements
halides and hydrides of alkali
alkaline earth metals, B, Al, Si, N, P, and S
General characteristics of 3d elements
Coordination complexes: valence bond and crystal field theory, color, geometry, magnetic properties and isomerism.
Section 4: Chemical Equilibria
elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point
ionic equilibria in solution
common ion effect
hydrolysis of salts
buffer and their applications
Equilibrium constants (Kc, Kp and Kx) for homogeneous reactions.
Section 5: Electrochemistry
thermodynamic aspects and their applications.
Section 6: Reaction Kinetics
order of reaction
first and second order kinetics
catalysis and elementary enzyme reactions
Reversible and irreversible inhibition of enzymes.
Section 7: Thermodynamics
Qualitative treatment of state and path functions
reversible and irreversible processes
heat of reaction
heat of formation
entropy and free energy
free energy change and spontaneity
Free energy changes from equilibrium constant.
Section 8: Structure-Reactivity Correlations and Organic Reaction Mechanisms
Acids and bases
electronic and steric effects
optical and geometrical isomerism
conformers and concept of aromaticity
Elementary treatment of SN1, SN2, E1, E2 and radical reactions
Markownikoff rule and Kharasch effect
Elementary hydroboration reactions
Grignard’s reagents and their uses
Aromatic electrophilic substitutions
orientation effect as exemplified by various functional groups
Identification of common functional groups by chemical tests.
Section 9: Chemistry of Biomolecules
nucleic acids and nucleotides
Peptide sequencing by chemical and enzymatic proteolytic methods
DNA sequencing by chemical and enzymatic methods
Carbohydrates (upto hexoses only)
Lipids (triglycerides only)
Principles of biomolecule purification-Ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography
Identification of these biomolecules and Beer-Lambert’s law.
Organization of life
Importance of water
Structure and function of biomolecules: Amino acids, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic acids
Protein structure, folding / misfolding and function
Myoglobin, Hemoglobin, Lysozyme, Ribonuclease A, Carboxypeptidase and Chymotrypsin.
Enzyme kinetics, regulation and inhibition
Vitamins and Coenzymes; Bioenergetics and metabolism
Generation and utilization of ATP
Metabolic pathways and their regulation: glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, gluconeogenesis, glycogen and fatty acid metabolism
Metabolism of Nitrogen containing compounds: nitrogen fixation, amino acids and nucleotides. Photosynthesis, Calvin cycle.
Section 3:Biochemical separation techniques
ion exchange, size exclusion and affinity chromatography, centrifugation; Characterization of biomolecules by electrophoresis
DNA- protein and protein â€“ protein interactions
UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy
Cell structure and organelles
Transport across membranes
Membrane assembly and Protein targeting
Hormones and neurotransmitters.
DNA replication, transcription and translation
DNA damage and repair
Biochemical regulation of gene expression
Recombinant DNA technology and applications: PCR, site directed mutagenesis, DNA-microarray
Next generation sequencing
Gene silencing and editing.
Section 6:Immune system
Innate and adaptive
Cell of the immune system
Active and passive immunity
Antibody structure, function and diversity
B cell and T Cell receptors
B cell and T cell activation
Major histocompatibilty complex
Immunological techniques: Immunodiffusion, immune-electrophoresis, RIA and ELISA, flow cytometry
monoclonal antibodies and their applications.
Section 1: Plant Systematics
Botanical nomenclature, history of plant taxonomy, diversity and classification of plants, APG system of plant classification
phylogenetics and cladistics, molecular taxonomy and DNA barcoding
Centers for plant taxonomy and herbaria in India.
Section 2: Plant Anatomy
Anatomy of root
stem and leaves
embryo and young seedlings
Primary and secondary meristems
vascular system and their ontogeny
xylem and phloem structure
secondary growth in plants and wood anatomy
plant cell structure and differences from animal cells.
Section 3: Plant development
cell and tissue morphogenesis
Life cycle of an angiosperm, development of male and female gametophyte
cell fate determination and tissue patterning
spacing mechanisms in trichomes and stomata
Embryogenesis, organization and function of shoot and root apical meristems
Transition to flowering: photoperiodism and vernalization, ABC model of floral organ patterning, pollen germination, double fertilization, seed development
Xylem and phloem cell differentiation, photomorphogenesis
phytochrome, cryptochrome, phototropin
Role of auxin, cytokinin, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids on plant development.
Section 4: Plant physiology and biochemistry
Plant water relations, mechanisms of uptake and transport of water, ions, solutes from soil to plants, apoplastic and symplastic transport mechanisms
Mechanism of stomatal movements, nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis
C3, C4 and CAM cycles, photorespiration, respiration: glycolysis, TCA cycle and electron transport chain
Plant responses and mechanisms of abiotic stresses including drought, salinity, freezing and heat stress, metal toxicity
role of abscisic acid in abiotic stresses
Structure and function of biomolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid), enzyme kinetics
Structure and biosynthesis of major plant secondary metabolites (alkaloids, terpenes, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids)
Biosynthesis, mechanism of action and physiological effects of auxin, cytokinin, gibberellic acids, brassinosteroid, ethylene, strigolactone, abscisic acid, salicylic and jasmonic acid
Senescence and programmed cell death.
Section 5: Genetics and genomics
Cell cycle and cell division
Principles of Mendelian inheritance, linkage, recombination, genetic mapping
extra chromosomal inheritance; Introduction to epigenetics
gene silencing- transgene silencing, post transcriptional gene silencing, miRNA and siRNA
evolution and organization of eukaryotic genome structure, gene expression, gene mutation and repair, chromosomal aberrations (numerical: euploidy and aneuploidy and structural: deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation), transposons
Model organisms for functional genetics and genomics
Introduction to transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics.
Section 6: Plant Breeding, Genetic Modification, Genome Editing
Principles, methods – selection, hybridization, heterosis
male sterility, genetic maps and molecular markers, embryo rescue, haploid and doubled haploids, plant tissue culture: micropropagation, embryo culture and in vitro regeneration, somatic embryogenesis, artificial seed, cryopreservation, somaclonal variation, somatic cell hybridization, marker-assisted selection, gene transfer methods viz. direct and vector-mediated, generation of transgenic plants
Introduction to genome editing: CRISPR/Cas9, Cre-Lox system to generate chimeras
plastid transformation; chemical mutagenesis.
Section 7: Economic and applied Botany
A general account of economically and medicinally important plants- cereals, pulses, plants yielding fibers, timber, sugar, beverages, oils, rubber, pigments, dyes, gums, drugs and narcotics
Economic importance of algae, fungi, lichen and bacteria
Major Indian cash crops
Effect of industrialization on agricultural botany such as plastic on fiber economy
Genetically modified crops and its regulation eg. Bt cotton, Bt brinjal golden rice etc.
Section 8: Plant Pathology
Nature and classification of plant diseases, diseases of important crops caused by fungi, bacteria, nematodes and viruses, and their control measures (chemical and biological) mechanism(s) of pathogenesis, resistance: basal, systemic, induced systemic resistance, gene for gene concept
Molecular detection of pathogens
plant-microbe interactions: symbionts and mycorrhiza, pathogens and pests
Signaling pathways in plant defence response
salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in plant-pathogen and plant-herbivore interaction, necrosis
host-parasitic plant interaction (such as Cuscuta).
Section 9: Ecology and Environment
Ecosystems – types, dynamics, degradation, biogeochemical cycles, ecological succession
food webs and energy flow through ecosystem
vegetation types of the world, Indian vegetation types and biogeographical zones, climate and flora endemism
pollution and global climate change, speciation and extinction, biodiversity and conservation strategies, ecological hotspots, afforestation, habitat restoration
plant interactions with other organisms
epiphytes, parasites and endophytes.
Section 1: Historical Perspective
Discovery of microbial world
Landmark discoveries relevant to the field of microbiology
Controversy over spontaneous generation
Role of microorganisms in transformation of organic matter and in the causation of diseases.
Section 2: Methods in Microbiology
Pure culture techniques
Principles of microbial nutrition
Enrichment culture techniques for isolation of microorganisms
antigen and antibody detection methods for microbial diagnosis
Light-, phase contrast-, fluorescence- and electron-microscopy
PCR, real-time PCR for quantitation of microbes
Next generation sequencing technologies in microbiology.
Section 3: Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity
Bacteria, Archea and their broad classification
Eukaryotic microbes: Yeasts, molds and protozoa
Viruses and their classification
Molecular approaches to microbial taxonomy and phylogeny
Section 4: Prokaryotic Cells: Structure and Function
Prokaryotic Cells: cell walls, cell membranes and their biosynthesis, mechanisms of solute transport across membranes, Flagella and Pili, Capsules, Cell inclusions like endospores and gas vesicles
Bacterial locomotion, including positive and negative chemotaxis.
Section 5: Microbial Growth
Definition of growth
Mathematical expression of exponential growth phase
Measurement of growth and growth yields
Effect of environmental factors on growth
Bacterial biofilm and biofouling.
Section 6: Control of Micro-organisms
Disinfection and sterilization: principles, methods and assessment of efficacy.
Section 7: Microbial Metabolism
Energetics: redox reactions and electron carriers
Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation
An overview of metabolism
The citric acid cycle
Aerobic and anaerobic respiration
Biosynthetic pathway for fatty acids synthesis
Common regulatory mechanisms in synthesis of amino acids
Regulation of major metabolic pathways.
Section 8: Microbial Diseases and Host Pathogen Interaction
Classification of infectious diseases
Reservoirs of infection
Emerging infectious diseases
Mechanism of microbial pathogenicity
Nonspecific defense of host
Antigens and antibodies
Humoral and cell mediated immunity
Human diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, and pathogenic fungi.
Section 9: Chemotherapy/Antibiotics
General characteristics of antimicrobial drugs
Antibiotics: Classification molecular mechanism of mode of action and resistance
Antifungal and antiviral drugs
Section 10: Microbial Genetics
Types of mutation; UV and chemical mutagens
Selection of mutants; Ames test for mutagenesis
Bacterial genetic system: transformation, conjugation, transduction, recombination, plasmids, transposons
Regulation of gene expression: repression and induction
Bacterial genome with special reference to E.coli
Phage Î» and its life cycle
mutation in virus genomes, virus recombination and reassortment
Basic concept of microbial genomics
Section 11: Microbial Ecology
Carbon, sulphur and nitrogen cycles
Soil microorganisms associated with vascular plants
Bioremediation; Uncultivable microorganisms
basic concept of metagenomics and metatranscriptomics.
Section 1: Animal Diversity
systematics and classification of animals
phylogenetic relationships (based on classical and molecular phylogenetic tools).
Section 2: Evolution
Origin and history of life on earth
theories of evolution
Section 3: Genetics
Basic Principles of inheritance
molecular basis of heredity
sex determination and sex-linked characteristics
recombination and mapping of genes in eukaryotes
roles of model organisms in understanding genetic principles
Section 4: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
lipids and carbohydrates
transcription and translation
hormones and their actions
roles of vitamins and minerals.
Section 5: Cell Biology
Basic principles of cellular microscopy
structure of cell
cellular organelles and their structure and function
chromosomes and chromatin structure.
Section 6: Gene expression in Eukaryotes
Eukaryotic genome organization and regulation of gene expression/p>
Section 7: Animal Anatomy and Physiology
the respiratory system
the nervous system
the excretory system
the endocrine system
the reproductive system
the skeletal system.
Section 8: Parasitology and Immunology
Nature of parasite
protozoan and helminthic parasites
the immune response
cellular and humoral immune response.
Section 9: Development Biology
Model organisms used in developmental biology
genetic and molecular basis of development
Section 10: Ecology
ecological niche and its contribution to ecological diversity
the food chain
Section 11: Animal Behaviour
Type of behaviours
mating and territoriality
learning and memory
social behaviour across the animal taxa/p>
evolution of behavior in animals.
Section 1: Food Chemistry and Nutrition
Carbohydrates: structure and functional properties of mono-, oligo-, & poly- saccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre, gelatinization and retrogradation of starch
Proteins: classification and structure of proteins in food, biochemical changes in post mortem and tenderization of muscles
Lipids: classification and structure of lipids, rancidity, polymerization and polymorphism
Pigments: carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin. Food flavours: terpenes, esters, aldehydes, ketones and quinines
Enzymes: specificity, simple and inhibition kinetics, coenzymes, enzymatic and non- enzymatic browning
Nutrition: balanced diet, essential amino acids and essential fatty acids, protein efficiency ratio, water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, role of minerals in nutrition, co-factors, anti-nutrients, nutraceuticals, nutrient deficiency diseases
Chemical and biochemical changes: changes occur in foods during differentprocessing.
Section 2: Food Microbiology
Characteristics of microorganisms: morphology of bacteria, yeast, mold and actinomycetes, spores and vegetative cells, gram-staining
Microbial growth: growth and death kinetics, serial dilution technique
Food spoilage: spoilage microorganisms in different food products including milk, fish, meat, egg, cereals and their products
Toxins from microbes: pathogens and non-pathogens including Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shebelle, Escherichia, Bacillus, Clostridium, and Aspergillums genera
Fermented foods and beverages: curd, yoghurt, cheese, pickles, soya-sauce, sauerkraut, idly, dose, vinegar, alcoholic beverages and sausage.
Section 3: Food Products Technology
Processing principles: thermal processing, chilling, freezing, dehydration, addition of preservatives and food additives, irradiation, fermentation, hurdle technology, intermediate moisture foods
Food pack aging and storage: packaging materials, aseptic packaging, controlled and modified atmosphere storage
Cereal processing and products: milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals
Oil processing: expelling, solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation
Fruits and vegetables processing: extraction, clarification, concentration and packaging of fruit juice, jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and puree, potato chips, pickles
Plantation crops processing and products: tea, coffee, cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils and oleoresins from spices
Milk and milk products processing: pasteurization and sterilization, cream, butter, ghee, ice- cream, cheese and milk powder
Processing of animal products: drying, canning, and freezing of fish and meat; production of egg powder
Waste utilization: pectin from fruit wastes, uses of by-products from rice milling
Food standards and quality maintenance: FPO, PFA, A-Mark, ISI, HACCP, food plant sanitation and cleaning in place (CIP).
Section 4: Food Engineering
Mass and energy balance; Momentum transfer: Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Reynolds number
Heat transfer: heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, heat exchangers
Mass transfer: molecular diffusion and Flick’s law, conduction and convective mass transfer, permeability through single and multilayer films
Mechanical operations: size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation, settling, sieving, mixing & agitation of liquid
Thermal operations: thermal sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze-drying, freezing and crystallization
Mass transfer operations: psychometric, humidification and dehumidificationoperations.
GATE 2022 XL-Q Biochemistry Syllabus
GATE 2022 SYLLABUS
Organization of life; Importance of water; Structure and function of biomolecules: Amino acids, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic acids; Protein structure, folding and function: Myoglobin, Hemoglobin, Lysozyme, Ribonuclease A, Carboxypeptidase and Chymotrypsin.
Enzyme kinetics including its regulation and inhibition, Vitamins and Coenzymes; Metabolism and bioenergetics; Generation and utilization of ATP; Metabolic pathways and their regulation: glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, gluconeogenesis, glycogen, and fatty acid metabolism; Metabolism of Nitrogen-containing compounds: nitrogen fixation, amino acids, and nucleotides. Photosynthesis: Calvin cycle.
Biochemical separation techniques: ion exchange, size exclusion, and affinity chromatography, Characterization of biomolecules by electrophoresis, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy, and Mass spectrometry.
Cell structure and organelles; Biological membranes; Transport across membranes; Signal transduction; hormones and neurotransmitters.
DNA replication, transcription, and translation; Biochemical regulation of gene expression; Recombinant DNA technology and applications: PCR, site-directed mutagenesis and DNA-microarray.
Immune system: Active and passive immunity; Complement system; Antibody structure, function, and diversity; Cells of the immune system: T, B, and macrophages; T and B cell activation; Major histocompatibility complex; T cell receptor; Immunological techniques: Immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, RIA and ELISA.